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A. Basic Consideration
What is literature? Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. It represents a language or people culture and tradition. According to Tjahjono (1998): “Literature is simplified as an expression of human aesthetic sense by using beautiful language-the medium of expression (P.25) Besides “ Literature is written works which deal with themes of permanent universal interest, characterized by creativeness and great expression, as poetry, drama, essay and novel ( Shipley, 1962).
A novel tells us about life, characters of society, place and time as might be met in real life. It can convey and teach many things to the readers, but it also gives pleasure and inspiration, not only does novel convey experience, it also conveys values (Winterowd 1975).
“The Robber Bride” is a novel written by Margaret Atwood, a Canadian most eminent writer who begins to write at the age of five.Her novels describe about problematic occurrences, which usually happens in a society or in a family. “The Robber Bride” shows some characteristics, attitudes and behaviors of the characters of this novel. The writer deals with strong powers to women’s friendship in distress, mixed with imagination and inventiveness, which makes this novel interesting to read.
There are five elements in a novel such as style, characters, setting, theme and plot which can be analyzed.In this skripsi, however, the researcher concentrates only on plot and all the characters, the main and supporting characters. Plot and character are both closely related. They are just “two aspects of the same phenomenon” (Miller & Morse – Cluley, 1984, p.26). Plot is the sequence of events, and character initiates plot. When we talk of plot, we emphazise what the character do in viewing of these statements. The writer will analyze the plot and the characters in “The Robber Bride” to incite curiosity, to find satisfaction and to be able to distinguish the positive and negative side in life.
B. Reason for Choosing the Topic
There are some reason for the reseacher to choosing this topic:
1. The researcher is interested in reading novels.
2. The novel is written by a famous author.
3. The characterization is special organized.
4. The plot is a sentimental plot.
C. Research Focus
Focus of this study is to analyze the plot and all the characters in “The Robber Bride”.
D. Research Question
1. How is the plot in “The Robber Bride”
2. How are the characters?
E. The Research Purposes
1. To describe the plot.
2. To identify all the characters in the novel.
3. To describe the characters in the novel.
F. Significance of the Research
1. Theoretically, this research is to develop the scientific knowledge of literature, especially about novels.
2. Practically, the result of this research can be as a reference for any student willing to study more about novels.
Review of Related Literature and Theoretical Bases
A. Review of Related Literature
After searching from the libraries and browsing from the internet, the researcher did not find any researcher who discussed this tittle before aspecially in STIBA BB Manado.
B. Theoretical Bases
1. Definition of Literature
Literature is a place where we can express our feeling and thought. And through this we share the experiences, creation or imagination. According to Robertson (1981) “Literature has value in so far as it communicates insight into human nature experience”.
From the quotation above it could be said literature has value if it communicates with insights of human nature experience.
The knowledge that we gain from literature then, concern experience and values. And the real use of literature is to provide an intense kind of pleasure that is difficult to explain, but that all readers experience.
He also explained that, there are two kind of literature, one written with a capital letter (Literature) and one without (literature).
– Literature is to be studied in school, generated and analyzed by learn critics.
– literature (with small letter) is to be enjoyed, diacussed with friends, and read to make life more tolarable and meaningful.
Reading a good work of a literature can be an intense and complex sort of pleasure.
There are some kind of literature, such as drama, fiction, and poetry. These will give you more information and meaning about literature.
Literature is literally “an acquaintance with letter” as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (1989) from the latin Littera meaning an individual written character (letter). The term itself has generally come to identify a collection of texts. The word “Literature” as an a common noun can refer to any form of writting, such as essays; “Literature” as a common noun can refer to any form of writing, such as essays; “Literature” as a proper noun refers to a whole body of literary work.
Hudson (1965) says that literature is a record of human daily experiences whatever they do, see, feel, and think. One can equate a literature with a collection of stories, poems, and plays that revolve around a particular topic. In this case, the stories, poems, and plays may or may not have nationalistic, racial, tribal, or even religious implications. To some people, the term “Literature” can apply broadly to any symbolic record which can include images and sculptures as well as letters. To others, a literature must only include examples of text composed of letters, or other narrowly defined examples of symbolic written language (for instance, Hieroglyphs) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/literary-element).
2. Genre of Literature
In general, there are four forms of literature which are commonplace in society, such as drama, fiction, poetry, novel. But, actually, there are five forms of literature in literary society. The fifth is counted as “other prose literature”. It invilves Philosophy, History, etc.
Irmsher (1972) stated that,
“Drama develops out of a progression of events, contrast of character and emotional conflicts, either action or words” (P.197). From this explanation, drama is about events in action or word that consist of characters and emotional conflicts in a story.
Drama also is a story about dialogue, acting play, and characterization in theatre, film, or books story that showing life. We can find people and much kind of their problems and the way to solve the problem. Basically, to enjoy staging of a drama is easier than read the book. A staging we are helped by the actor’s action, their expression the dialogue. Event the stage situation helps us to enjoy the drama.
Drs. BambangMarhianto (1999) explains that, fiction is about writing illusion, a story is written based on writers’ imagination, for example novel and short story.
From the explanation above, fiction is a story based on writer’s illusion in a novel or short story. The writer’s imagination is about event that happens in real life. Many people like to read fiction to fill their time or as an entertainment. By reading fiction the readers also can find several kinds of aspects either human’s characters or lifestyle in a country.
Poetry is a beautiful literary work in form of a rhyme. Idris (1985) gives definition in his book that poetry is a string of word that can we find the similarity of rhythm and it’s read with rhythm. So, poetry is a literary word that has similarity of rhyme in sentence, and use rhythm. Sometimes the words in poetry tell the poet’s life or describe about the poet’s mood.
Trimmers and Sommers (1984) stated that,
“Poetry is yet another form of literary expression another vehicle of human thought and feeling perhaps the most misunderstood of the genres because it seems to demand the most of its readers” (p.200).
On the explanation above, the writer concludes that poetry is the vehicle of human to express their thought and feeling also it seems to demand its readers. Because the reader often needs to bring to the poem more than the poem gives. The poem therefore acts as a catalyst of the imagination and feeling.
A novel tells us about life; it can be subdivided into characters and society and deals with the action and place. Peck (1983) stated that, “A novel is read as a sort of veiled autobiography” (p.12). So, the novel is about author’s autobiography, because some time a story in novel shows the author’s experience. One way of reading novel is to see it as a reflection of the author’s life.
Readers read books for different reason. They are required to at school; they read novels to pass the time on holidays or to get off to sleep at night. Different readers take varying impressions and ideas from the same novel. Because every readers has different thought and feelings.
There are good reasons to reading novel, according to Hardy (1969).
– To take part in the action and get knowledge.
– To meet people, the kind you are unlikely to meet in real life, yet who are recognizably human, whose problems and potential are like your own but magnified.
– To understand human personality better than you otherwise could. Because you are led to that understanding by the novelist’s superior perception and ability to communicate.
– To see how people act and to see consequencences often swallowed up inthe day- by-day routine of leaving, but the novelist ship the routine and concentrate on the significant.
– To lead many lives not just one, and you can profit from other’s mistakes and develop understanding from their vailures.
Novel consists of five elements; these are theme, character, plot, style, and setting. These five elements are very important in making a novel. Because the novel is formed with five elements to explain the story to the readers.
Hartoko and Rahmanto give definition that, theme is the general basic that support the literary work and as semantic structure and also about the similarities or differences.
This definition explain that theme support a literary work that express the general idea or theme showing characters in action or in conflic, that gives unity to the action. Often the theme is not stated explicitly. Sometime there is statement within a work that does state the theme explicitly.
“Characters are those creations that permit the artist to play deity to populate a fictional universe with people and creatures of his own making” (Imsher, 1972, p.218). The quotation explain that character is created to populate a fictional univeersewith people. This power of creativity exceeds man’s capacity to reproduce, for in physical reproduction the off spring is determined by natural law and heredity. Trimmer and Sommers stated in their book that the work character is use in two senses in literature. Firs, to identify the people who appear in the story. Second, to describe the personality of any of those people especially those traits that affect the development of the work. From this explanation the writer concludes that character is about the people in a story with their habbit that express different trait.
Characters is defined as a person in a story who is potrayed by an actor or actress (Webster New World Dictionary, 1988). Hamalian and Karl (1967) further defines character as of interest for the very personal reason that we want to see how other people live, how they make decision and react to responsibility, how they pursue their goals. Another definition of character is by laidlaw (2003) who states that characters in stories are recognized through their own words and behavior and through other character’s words about them and behavior toward them.
Abrams (2003), meanwhile, explains thar characters are the people who appears in a narration or drama that are interpretend by the readers to have moral qualities and certain tendencies as being expressed in their own words and actions. Characters may also act as a sender of messages, trusteeship, and morals, which intentionally wanted to be conveyed to the readers (Sugihastuti, 2003). She adds that an author develops characterization through dialog, thought and action, though of others and the description of the narrator. In addition, Robert (1964) states that character in literature is an extended verbal representation of human being, specifically the innerself that detemines thought, speech and behavior.
In fiction, character refers to a textual representation of a human being (or occasionally another creature). Most fiction writers agree that character development is the key element in a story’s creation, and in most pieces of fiction a close identification with the characters is crucial to understanding the story.
Characters can be categorized into main character and supportingcharacter (Laidlaw, 2003). The main character is considered as the most important character who always appears in a story and influence the development of a plot through the conflict, while the supporting character is the character who appears only when there is a relationship with the main character. Miller & Morse-Cluley (1984) define main character as those who are central to the action, so continual in their presence that we expect that the author will explore their makeup and motivation most throughly. The minor (supporting) character, meanwhile, are the rest : they are seen only as they impinge in the lives of the central person in the action.
From the function of the appearence, character can be categorized into protagonist and antagonist characters (Luxemburg in Nurgiyantoro, 2000). Protagonist character is the manafestation of our ideal norms and values showing something that is appropriate with the reader’s view and expection. Antagonist character, on the other hand, is the character that causes the conflict in the story and opposes the protagonist character, physically as well as mentally. Miller & Morse-Cluly (1984) argue that if one main character is studied far more any other, he or she may be called as the focus character or the protagonist.
Based on characterization, caharacter can be divided into flat and roundcharacter (Abram in Panuti & Sudjiman, 1991). Flat character has originally one certain personal quality and particular behavior only. The attitude of this character is flat, monotonous, and only reflects to one characterization. Round character, instead, is the character who performs various attitudes, this character can do many action. He or She is unpredictable and complex in his or her motives and reason. A famous English novelist, E. M. Forster in his aspects of The Novel (Miller & Morse-Cluly, 1984) also divides fictional people into round and flat characters. A round character is so called because he or she hasdepth. The author’s characterization is complex and dynamic, that is, the character changes and the changes are accounted for. By contrast, the flat character is known only from one side, the side that he or she presents to main characters.
According to the criteria of whether the character develops or not, character can be divided into static and develop character. Static character does not experience change of characterization and remains the same at the beginning untill the end of a story, while develop character experience change of characterization along with the development of events and plot in the story.
Sugihastuti (2003) concludes that an author develops characterization through dialog, through an action, thought of other and description of the narrator. Such characterization is similar to what Roberts (1964) writes. He gives four steps to analyze characters: (a) what the characters themselves say (and think if the author expresses their thought), (b) what the characters do, (c) what other characters say about them, and (d) what the author says about, speaking as story teller or obsever.
Lubis (1960) elaborates some writer’s techniques to describe characters as such: (a) physical description, (b) potrayal of thought stream or of conscious thought, (c) reaction to events, (d) direct author analysis, (e) discussion of environment, (f) reaction of others about / to character, and (g) conversation of others about a character. As comparison, Miller & Morse-Cluley (1984) propose six methods of characterization: (a) authorial description, (b) description by other characters, (c) character’s self-image, (d) action, (e) dialogue, and (f) foils.
“The plot is the sequence of action that makes up the core of the story” (Trimmer and Sommers, 1984, P.318). So plot is what the characters do or what is done to theme as the story proceeds. Plot is also the same with chronology of events in a story. A plot in literature is the arrangement of incidents that (ideally) each follow plausibly from the other. The plot is like the chalk outline that guides the painter’s brush. Plot can also be defined as the structure of a story or the sequence in which the author arranges events in a story. The plot may have a protagonist who is opposed by antagonist, creating what is called conflict. The other terms which have the same meaning with plot are “trap, dramatic conflict, and story line” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/literary-element).
In “Forms of the Novella” written by David H. Richter (1981), he states that plot is a system of episides linked throgh probability and often involving a major change in the fortunes or the consciousness of the protagonist.
Bain, Beaty, and Hunter (1973) stipulate, “plot simply means the arrangement of the action, an imagined event or a series of such event”. They add, “Action usually involves conflict, a struggle between opposing forces” (p.15). The opposing forces, in this case, are the characters inside the novel. The character and plot are interdependent; since action arises from character and character is expressed through action.
Most plots center upon a conflict, or multiple conflicts. The protagonist is set against other people or society: against fate, circumstance, or the environment; or against their own desire or values; or any combination of these (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/literature-plot).
Richter (1981) explains,
Most plots are dynamic: they involve some change in the protagonist ‘s situation or our understanding of it. In simple plots, the protagonist’s situation moves from its initial to its final state along a single line of probability: he or she moves, in a series of episodes, from victory to victory, ending at the height of fortune, or, conversely, degenerates successively, at each turn of events, ending in death or some lesser doom, complex plots, on the other hand, employ two or more lines of probability that work against one another; the protagonist ‘s fortune is subject to reversal at one more points in the action. Simple plots are typical of the short story, complex plots of the novel-…(p.8-9).
Sinclair and Fitzgerald, like most authors, say that plot has its special meaning for the authors and for the readers. They argue, for the authors, “Plot is a device for unfolding the story in a more dramatic and suspenseful fashion”. For the readers, “plot is the means by which they slowly discover and put together the pieces of the complete story” (Miller and Cluley, 1984, p.21-22).
Technically, like the other literary works, a fiction has to start from “the beginning” goes through “the middle”, and stops to “the ending”. In literary realm, they can be counted as exposition, complication, and resolution (denouement) “(Tarigan, 1984, p.126).”
A plot can also create suspense by arousing sympathy for a character whose fortunes are uncertain, leaving the audience or reader anxious for the sake of the protagonists. On the other hand, plot can generate suspense when the reader is allowed to know the final out come and is, then, shown the protagonist’s step by step approach to an end he or she does not expect.
Miller and Cluley (1984) state, “Structure can be seen as the author must create suspense over new questions and problems, satisfy us with some answers and solutions, and lead us to still other questions”(p.24). Consequently, we can draw a conclusion that plot in a story has several elements. The elements are:
• Initial Situation (exposition)
• Conflict or Problem
• Rising Action (complication)
• Climax (turning point)
• Falling Action (resolution)
• Conclusion (ending)
According to Hartoko and Rahmanto (1986) Style is the way the author uses to express, for examlple in each language aspects such as choosing words, using beautiful words, sentence structure, and tone. The style can be said as variation in using language without rule. Style is the total effect of what writting and it depends in part upon the subject, the structure, the words, and the strategies. Soe theorists contend that style is one and pevasive, in separable in each elements and in separable from the writer who produces it.
“Setting is literal and vivid, but it also a means for revealing the significance of the action” (Irmscher, 1972, P.212). So, setting is important to make the action and event clear in a story, it can also influence characters and what they do. Sometimes the setting is clearly describe by the narator. Setting maybe a less integral part of the story, it maybe provided only as if it were a landscape in the background.
Other definition of setting is explained by Tyahyono (1988), he said that setting is place, time, or nature condition, where the event happen. From this definition the writer concludes that every human activities will happen in one place, time, and at certain situation. The setting is created to build a certain situation that can move feeling and emotion and create mood of the readers.
A. Location and Time Arrangement
Since it is a research on Literature, the researchers choose a qualitative approach with a library research design. Qualitative method which relied much on description is likely the best approach to describe the character on novels. Library research meanwhile, is the design by nature of literature work.
The research was conducted for about one month and a half. The research was started in mid-April through pre-observation in order to purpose a research design for the seminar. Data collection was conducted write after the acceptance of the proposal in the seminar until early June 2013. Writing the report then was carried out while collecting the data until first week of July.
B. Kinds and Sources of Data
Data which were collected for the research were all in the form of words because it was a library research on literature of novels through character analysis.
Sources of data were from the novel The Robber Bride, started from page 3 up to page 468.
C. Technique of Data Collection
In accordance with the nature of a library research data collection was obtained through a book that is the novel The Robber Bride.
D. Data Analysis
In analyzing character, the researcher choose to identify major and supporting characters, protagonist and antagonist characters, flat and round character, and static and developed character. In analyzing characterization, further, the researcher choose to use Robberts, techniques of : (a) what the characters themselves say (and think if the author expresses their thought), (b) what the characters do, (c) what other characters say about them, and (d) what the author sat about them, speaking as story teller or observer.
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